Ey guys, after working on this along the afternoon I have solved the issues in our case.
For the future generations that want to integrate Rodeostat in their Arduino based platforms:
The Hardware: As Will has said before, you will need to connect the Arduino to the teensy in one of the possible ways (SoftwareSerial, I2C, SPI, Hardware Serial (like Serial2...)). In our case we have connected it by Hardware Serial, with Serial2 in the pins 26 of the P14 connector (see the schematic that Will attached before, remeber that the arrow in the pcb indicate the first pin of the header) to a TX pin in the Arduino (in our case the TX2 pin in Arduino Mega) and the 31 (also in the P14 connector) to the RX pin in the Arduino. For powering the rodeostat you will also need to connect the ground from teensy (like the one in the P13 or P14 connector) to the ground in Arduino, and 5V of Arduino to the pin 5V in the teensy PCB. This last pin is located under the P13 connector, there are four pins and the sign "5V" are near the internal pin of the PCB but TAKE CARE the 5V pin is the one in front of this, the one near the border of the PCB. That letters lead to an error.
The Arduino software. You could use the one that @HoughA have post before, measuring the voltage between the "DAC BIP" hole in the pcb and a hole connected to ground. The voltage should change between 1 and 0 every second (if you polymeter don´t change this fast, just change the code and set a delay of 5 secs).
Teensy software. First of all, you will need to add this lines to the setup function in the Arduino file (these lines are specific if you are using Serial2 communication, substitutes them for your own system):
Serial2.setTX(31); Serial2.setRX(26); Serial2.begin(115200);
You will need also to change the functions that receive the messages from the normal usb serial port, and set them to receive by Serial2 port instead. For doing this just open the files ps_message_receiver.cpp and ps_message_sender.cpp (this one if you want to also receive the response in your arduino instead of your PC) from the potentiostat library and change every line in which you see "Serial." to "Serial2."
If you made only this changes you will have the problem that @HoughA have faced before; Your Arduino and your Teensy only communicates after you send something over the normal Serial port with a PC. This is because we don't have changed the Serial Event handler in the Arduino code. This handler triggers on with a new Serial communication and updates the message data.
This handler function is located at the bottom of your .ino file. Is called SerialEvent and you will need to change it to SerialEvent2 (To handle Serial2 events instead of Serial events).
Sorry for my poor English. Hope this comment has given you a hand.
Hugs from Madrid,